„Čalgija” is a word of Arab origin meaning „rhythm”. It refers to an urban instrumental band. It is believed that the appearance of such bands in this country coincided with the arrival of the Turks, although they might have appeared much earlier. However, it quite certain that calgijas were a part of everyday life of townspeople in the principality of Serbia in the nineteenth century. These bands entertained them in coffee-houses, at wedding parties and during other public and private celebrations. The last Belgrade čalgija ceased to exist in 1912, after the demolition of the „Dardaneli” coffee-house. Today this kind of musical expression is still preserved only in Vranje and in Kosovo and Metohija. The band „Beogradska čalgija” was founded in October 1999. Since then, they have played medleys of folk songs and dances, thus reviving the already forgotten customs and the spirit of old Serbian towns. The band includes authentic instruments originating from the cities of Eastern Mediterranean, the region to which our culture naturally belongs.